Latest Issue of IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
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Latest Issue of IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer SciencesENieice.orgieice.orgCopyright ieice.orgAnalysis and Minimization of Roundoff Noise for Generalized Direct-Form II Realization of 2-D Separable-Denominator Filters
http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e103-a_7_873&category=A&lang=E&ref=rss&abst=&year=2020
Based on the concept of polynomial operators, this paper explores generalized direct-form II structure and its state-space realization for two-dimensional separable-denominator digital filters of order (m, n) where a structure with 3(m+n)+mn+1 fixed parameters plus m+n free parameters is introduced and analyzed. An l2-scaling method utilizing different coupling coefficients at different branch nodes to avoid overflow is presented. Expressions of evaluating the roundoff noise for the filter structure as well as its state-space realization are derived and investigated. The availability of the m+n free parameters is shown to be beneficial as the roundoff noise measures can be minimized with respect to these free parameters by means of an exhaustive search over a set with finite number of candidate elements. The important role these parameters can play in the endeavors of roundoff noise reduction is demonstrated by numerical experiments. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Control of Discrete-Time Chaotic Systems with Policy-Based Deep Reinforcement Learning
http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e103-a_7_885&category=A&lang=E&ref=rss&abst=&year=2020
The OGY method is one of control methods for a chaotic system. In the method, we have to calculate a target periodic orbit embedded in its chaotic attractor. Thus, we cannot use this method in the case where a precise mathematical model of the chaotic system cannot be identified. In this case, the delayed feedback control proposed by Pyragas is useful. However, even in the delayed feedback control, we need the mathematical model to determine a feedback gain that stabilizes the periodic orbit. Thus, we propose a reinforcement learning algorithm to the design of a controller for the chaotic system. Recently, reinforcement learning algorithms with deep neural networks have been paid much attention to. Those algorithms make it possible to control complex systems. We propose a controller design method consisting of two steps, where we determine a region including a target periodic point first, and make the controller learn an optimal control policy for its stabilization. The controller efficiently explores its control policy only in the region. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Key-Recovery Security of Single-Key Even-Mansour Ciphers
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In this paper, we explore the security of single-key Even-Mansour ciphers against key-recovery attacks. First, we introduce a simple key-recovery attack using key relations on an n-bit r-round single-key Even-Mansour cipher (r-SEM). This attack is feasible with queries of DTr=O(2rn) and $2^{rac{2r}{r + 1}n}$ memory accesses, which is $2^{rac{1}{r + 1}n}$ times smaller than the previous generic attacks on r-SEM, where D and T are the number of queries to the encryption function EK and the internal permutation P, respectively. Next, we further reduce the time complexity of the key recovery attack on 2-SEM by a start-in-the-middle approach. This is the first attack that is more efficient than an exhaustive key search while keeping the query bound of DT2=O(22n). Finally, we leverage the start-in-the-middle approach to directly improve the previous attacks on 2-SEM by Dinur et al., which exploit t-way collisions of the underlying function. Our improved attacks do not keep the bound of DT2=O(22n), but are the most time-efficient attacks among the existing ones. For n=64, 128 and 256, our attack is feasible with the time complexity of about $2^{n} cdot rac{1}{2 n}$ in the chosen-plaintext model, while Dinur et al.'s attack requires $2^{n} cdot rac{{
m log}(n)}{ n} $ in the known-plaintext model. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Contextual Integrity Based Android Privacy Data Protection System
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Android occupies a very large market share in the field of mobile devices, and quantities of applications are created everyday allowing users to easily use them. However, privacy leaks on Android terminals may result in serious losses to businesses and individuals. Current permission model cannot effectively prevent privacy data leakage. In this paper, we find a way to protect privacy data on Android terminals from the perspective of privacy information propagation by porting the concept of contextual integrity to the realm of privacy protection. We propose a computational model of contextual integrity suiting for Android platform and design a privacy protection system based on the model. The system consists of an online phase and offline phase; the main function of online phase is to computing the value of distribution norm and making privacy decisions, while the main function of offline phase is to create a classification model that can calculate the value of the appropriateness norm. Based on the 6 million permission requests records along with 2.3 million runtime contextual records collected by dynamic analysis, we build the system and verify its feasibility. Experiment shows that the accuracy of offline classifier reaches up to 0.94. The experiment of the overall system feasibility illustrates that 70% location data requests, 84% phone data requests and 46% storage requests etc., violate the contextual integrity. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>A Node-Grouping Based Spatial Spectrum Reuse Method for WLANs in Dense Residential Scenarios
http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e103-a_7_917&category=A&lang=E&ref=rss&abst=&year=2020
Lately, an increasing number of wireless local area network (WLAN) access points (APs) are deployed to serve an ever increasing number of mobile stations (STAs). Due to the limited frequency spectrum, more and more AP and STA nodes try to access the same channel. Spatial spectrum reuse is promoted by the IEEE 802.11ax task group through dynamic sensitivity control (DSC), which permits cochannel operation when the received signal power at the prospective transmitting node (PTN) is lower than an adjusted carrier sensing threshold (CST). Previously-proposed DSC approaches typically calculate the CST without node grouping by using a margin parameter that remains fixed during operation. Setting the margin has previously been done heuristically. Finding a suitable value has remained an open problem. Therefore, herein, we propose a DSC approach that employs a node grouping method for adaptive calculation of the CST at the PTN with a channel-aware and margin-free formula. Numerical simulations for dense residential WLAN scenario reveal total throughput and Jain's fairness index gains of 8.4% and 7.6%, respectively, vs. no DSC (as in WLANs deployed to present). Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Magic Line: An Integrated Method for Fast Parts Counting and Orientation Recognition Using Industrial Vision Systems
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Vision systems are widely adopted in industrial fields for monitoring and automation. As a typical example, industrial vision systems are extensively implemented in vibrator parts feeder to ensure orientations of parts for assembling are aligned and disqualified parts are eliminated. An efficient parts orientation recognition and counting method is thus critical to adopt. In this paper, an integrated method for fast parts counting and orientation recognition using industrial vision systems is proposed. Original 2D spatial image signal of parts is decomposed to 1D signal with its temporal variance, thus efficient recognition and counting is achievable, feeding speed of each parts is further leveraged to elaborate counting in an adaptive way. Experiments on parts of different types are conducted, the experimental results revealed that our proposed method is both more efficient and accurate compared to other relevant methods. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Siamese Attention-Based LSTM for Speech Emotion Recognition
http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e103-a_7_937&category=A&lang=E&ref=rss&abst=&year=2020
As one of the popular topics in the field of human-computer interaction, the Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) aims to classify the emotional tendency from the speakers' utterances. Using the existing deep learning methods, and with a large amount of training data, we can achieve a highly accurate performance result. Unfortunately, it's time consuming and difficult job to build such a huge emotional speech database that can be applicable universally. However, the Siamese Neural Network (SNN), which we discuss in this paper, can yield extremely precise results with just a limited amount of training data through pairwise training which mitigates the impacts of sample deficiency and provides enough iterations. To obtain enough SER training, this study proposes a novel method which uses Siamese Attention-based Long Short-Term Memory Networks. In this framework, we designed two Attention-based Long Short-Term Memory Networks which shares the same weights, and we input frame level acoustic emotional features to the Siamese network rather than utterance level emotional features. The proposed solution has been evaluated on EMODB, ABC and UYGSEDB corpora, and showed significant improvement on SER results, compared to conventional deep learning methods. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Initial Assessment of LEO-Augmented GPS RTK in Signal-Degraded Environment
http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e103-a_7_942&category=A&lang=E&ref=rss&abst=&year=2020
We simulate some scenarios that 2/3 LEO satellites enhance 3/4/5 GPS satellites, to assess LEO-augmented GPS RTK positioning in signal-degraded environment. The effects of LEO-augmented GPS RTK in terms of reliability, availability and accuracy are presented, and the DIA algorithm is applied to deal with the poor data quality. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Locally Repairable Codes from Cyclic Codes and Generalized Quadrangles
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Locally repairable codes (LRCs) with locality r and availability t are a class of codes which can recover data from erasures by accessing other t disjoint repair groups, that every group contain at most r other code symbols. This letter will investigate constructions of LRCs derived from cyclic codes and generalized quadrangle. On the one hand, two classes of cyclic LRC with given locality m-1 and availability em are proposed via trace function. Our LRCs have the same locality, availability, minimum distance and code rate, but have short length and low dimension. On the other hand, an LRC with $(2,(p+1)lfloorrac{s}{2}
floor)$ is presented based on sets of points in PG(k, q) which form generalized quadrangles with order (s, p). For k=3, 4, 5, LRCs with r=2 and different t are determined. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Throughput Analysis of Dynamic Multi-Hop Shortcut Communications for a Simple Model
http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e103-a_7_951&category=A&lang=E&ref=rss&abst=&year=2020
Previously, dynamic multi-hop shortcut (DMHS) communications to improve packet delivery rate and reduce end-to-end transmission delay was proposed. In this letter, we theoretically derive the end-to-end throughput of DMHS considering the retransmission at each node for a simple network model without considering collision. Moreover, we show the validity of the derived expression using computer simulations, and we clarify the effect of various parameters on the throughput using DMHS. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>Improvement of Luminance Isotropy for Convolutional Neural Networks-Based Image Super-Resolution
http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e103-a_7_955&category=A&lang=E&ref=rss&abst=&year=2020
Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based image super-resolutions are widely used as a high-quality image-enhancement technique. However, in general, they show little to no luminance isotropy. Thus, we propose two methods, “Luminance Inversion Training (LIT)” and “Luminance Inversion Averaging (LIA),” to improve the luminance isotropy of CNN-based image super-resolutions. Experimental results of 2× image magnification show that the average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) using Luminance Inversion Averaging is about 0.15-0.20dB higher than that for the conventional super-resolution. Publication Date: 2020/07/01]]>