Singular-Spectrum Analysis for Digital Audio Watermarking with Automatic Parameterization and Parameter Estimation


IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E99-D   No.8   pp.2109-2120
Publication Date: 2016/08/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2016EDP7065
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Information Network
singular-spectrum analysis,  singular value decomposition,  singular value,  differential evolution,  automatic parameter estimation,  concavity density function,  

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This paper proposes a blind, inaudible, robust digital-audio watermarking scheme based on singular-spectrum analysis, which relates to watermarking techniques based on singular value decomposition. We decompose a host signal into its oscillatory components and modify amplitudes of some of those components with respect to a watermark bit and embedding rule. To improve the sound quality of a watermarked signal and still maintain robustness, differential evolution is introduced to find optimal parameters of the proposed scheme. Test results show that, although a trade-off between inaudibility and robustness still persists, the difference in sound quality between the original and the watermarked one is considerably smaller. This improved scheme is robust against many attacks, such as MP3 and MP4 compression, and band-pass filtering. However, there is a drawback, i.e., some music-dependent parameters need to be shared between embedding and extraction processes. To overcome this drawback, we propose a method for automatic parameter estimation. By incorporating the estimation method into the framework, those parameters need not to be shared, and the test results show that it can blindly decode watermark bits with an accuracy of 99.99%. This paper not only proposes a new technique and scheme but also discusses the singular value and its physical interpretation.