Method of Audio Watermarking Based on Adaptive Phase Modulation

Nhut Minh NGO  Masashi UNOKI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E99-D   No.1   pp.92-101
Publication Date: 2016/01/01
Publicized: 2015/10/21
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2015MUP0019
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Enriched Multimedia---Creation of a New Society through Value-added Multimedia Content---)
audio watermarking,  blind detection,  adaptive phase modulation,  all-pass filter,  chirp-z transformation,  

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This paper proposes a method of watermarking for digital audio signals based on adaptive phase modulation. Audio signals are usually non-stationary, i.e., their own characteristics are time-variant. The features for watermarking are usually not selected by combining the principle of variability, which affects the performance of the whole watermarking system. The proposed method embeds a watermark into an audio signal by adaptively modulating its phase with the watermark using IIR all-pass filters. The frequency location of the pole-zero of an IIR all-pass filter that characterizes the transfer function of the filter is adapted on the basis of signal power distribution on sub-bands in a magnitude spectrum domain. The pole-zero locations are adapted so that the phase modulation produces slight distortion in watermarked signals to achieve the best sound quality. The experimental results show that the proposed method could embed inaudible watermarks into various kinds of audio signals and correctly detect watermarks without the aid of original signals. A reasonable trade-off between inaudibility and robustness could be obtained by balancing the phase modulation scheme. The proposed method can embed a watermark into audio signals up to 100 bits per second with 99% accuracy and 6 bits per second with 94.3% accuracy in the cases of no attack and attacks, respectively.