Characterizing Silicon Avalanche Photodiode Fabricated by Standard 0.18µm CMOS Process for High-Speed Operation

Zul Atfyi Fauzan Mohammed NAPIAH  Ryoichi GYOBU  Takuya HISHIKI  Takeo MARUYAMA  Koichi IIYAMA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E99-C   No.12   pp.1304-1311
Publication Date: 2016/12/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E99.C.1304
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Lasers, Quantum Electronics
photodiode,  avalanche photodiode,  CMOS process,  silicon,  

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nMOS-type and pMOS-type silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) were fabricated by standard 0.18µm CMOS process, and the current-voltage characteristic and the frequency response of the APDs with and without guard ring structure were measured. The role of the guard ring is cancellation of photo-generated carriers in a deep layer and a substrate. The bandwidth of the APD is enhanced with the guard ring structure at a sacrifice of the responsivity. Based on comparison of nMOS-type and pMOS-type APDs, the nMOS-type APD is more suitable for high-speed operation. The bandwidth is enhanced with decreasing the spacing of interdigital electrodes due to decreased carrier transit time and with decreasing the detection area and the PAD size for RF probing due to decreased device capacitance. The maximum bandwidth was achieved with the avalanche gain of about 10. Finally, we fabricated a nMOS-type APD with the electrode spacing of 0.84µm, the detection area of 10×10µm2, the PAD size for RF probing of 30×30µm2, and with the guard ring structure. The maximum bandwidth of 8.4GHz was achieved along with the gain-bandwidth product of 280GHz.