On the Use of m-Ary Challenges for RFID Distance Bounding Protocol

Young-Sik KIM  Sang-Hyo KIM  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E99-B    No.9    pp.2028-2035
Publication Date: 2016/09/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2015EBP3389
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Fundamental Theories for Communications
RFID,  authentication,  distance bounding protocol,  mafia fraud,  distance fraud,  

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In this paper, we propose an RFID distance bounding protocol that uses m-ary challenges. Recently, Kim and Avoine proposed two distance bounding protocols with mixed challenges that are pre-determined or random. We generalize the first scheme of Kim and Avoine's random scheme as a distance bounding protocol with m-ary challenges. The generalized formula for success probabilities for mafia fraud and distance fraud attacks is derived. Our scheme using m-ary challenges reduces the mafia fraud success probability from (3/4)n for m=2 to (7/16)n for m=4 and the distance fraud success probability from $(1- rac 1 4 cdot P_r)^n$ for m=2 to $(1 - rac {189}{256} cdot P_r)^n$ for m=4, where Pr is the probability that a challenge is random.