Performance Analysis of Lunar Spacecraft Navigation Based on Inter-Satellite Link Annular Beam Antenna

Lei CHEN  Ke ZHANG  Yangbo HUANG  Zhe LIU  Gang OU  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E99-B   No.4   pp.951-959
Publication Date: 2016/04/01
Publicized: 2016/01/29
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2015EBP3522
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Navigation, Guidance and Control Systems
inter-satellite link (ISL),  annular beam antenna,  starting elevation,  beamwidth,  weighting distance root-mean-square (wdrms),  

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The rapid development of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) has raised the demand for spacecraft navigation, particularly for lunar spacecraft (LS). First, instead of the traditional approach of combining the united X-band system (UXB) with very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) by a terrestrial-based observing station in Chinese deep-space exploration, the spacecraft navigation based on inter-satellite link (ISL) is proposed because the spatial coverage of the GNSS downstream signals is too narrow to be used for LS navigation. Second, the feasibility of LS navigation by using ISL wide beam signals has been analyzed with the following receiving parameters: the geometrical dilution of precision (GDOP) and the carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N0) for satellites autonomously navigation of ISL and LS respectively; the weighting distance root-mean-square (wdrms) for the combination of both navigation modes. Third, to be different from all existing spacecraft ISL and GNSS navigation methods, an ISL annular beam transmitting antenna has been simulated to minimize the wdrms (1.138m) to obtain the optimal beam coverage: 16°-47° on elevation angle. Theoretical calculations and simulations have demonstrated that both ISL autonomous navigation and LS navigation can be satisfied at the same time. Furthermore, an onboard annular wide beam ISL antenna with optimized parameters has been designed to provide a larger channel capacity with a simpler structure than that of the existing GPS ISL spot beam antenna, a better anti-jamming performance than that of the former GPS ISL UHF-band wide band antenna, and a wider effectively operating area than the traditional terrestrial-based measurement. Lastly, the possibility and availability of applying an ISL receiver with an annular wide beam antenna on the Chinese Chang'E-5T (CE-5T) reentry experiment for autonomous navigation are analyzed and verified by simulating and comparing the ISL receiver with the practiced GNSS receiver.