An Adaptive Routing Protocol with Balanced Stochastic Route Exploration and Stabilization Based on Short-Term Memory

Tomohiro NAKAO  Jun-nosuke TERAMAE  Naoki WAKAMIYA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E99-B   No.11   pp.2280-2288
Publication Date: 2016/11/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2016NEP0008
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Deepening and Expanding of Information Network Science)
distributed routing,  attractor selection,  active exploration,  a short-term memory,  

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Due to rapid increases in the number of users and diversity of devices, temporal fluctuation of traffic on information communication network is becoming large and rapid recently. Especially, sudden traffic changes such as flash crowds often cause serious congestion on the network and result in nearly fatal slow down of date-communication speed. In order to keep communication quality high on the network, routing protocols that are scalable and able to quickly respond to rapid, and often unexpected, traffic fluctuation are highly desired. One of the promising approaches is the distributed routing protocol, which works without referring global information of the whole network but requires only limited informatin of it to realize route selection. These approaches include biologically inspired routing protocols based on the Adaptive Response by Attractor Selection model (ARAS), in which routing tables are updated along with only a scalar value reflecting communication quality measured on each router without evaluating communication quality over the whole network. However, the lack of global knowledge of the current status of the network often makes it difficult to respond promptly to traffic changes on the network that occurs at outside of the local scope of the protocol and causes inefficient use of network resources. In order to solve the essential problem of the local scope, we extend ARAS and propose a routing protocol with active and stochastic route exploration. The proposed protocol can obtain current communication quality of the network beyond its local scope and promptly responds to traffic changes occur on the network by utilizing the route exploration. In order to compensate destabilization of routing itself due to the active and stochastic exploration, we also introduce a short-term memory to the dynamics of the proposed attractor selection model. We conform by numerical simulations that the proposed protocol successfully balances rapid exploration with reliable routing owning to the memory term.