Individual Restoration of Tampered Pixels for Statistical Fragile Watermarking

Maki YOSHIDA
Kazuya OHKITA
Toru FUJIWARA

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E98-D    No.1    pp.58-64
Publication Date: 2015/01/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2014MUP0006
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Enriched Multimedia)
Category: 
Keyword: 
watermarking,  fragile,  tampering,  detection,  restoration,  maximum length sequence code,  

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Summary: 
An important issue of fragile watermarking for image is to locate and restore the tampered pixels individually and accurately. This issue is resolved for concentrated tampering. In contrast, for diverse tampering, only localization is realized. This paper presents a restoration method for the most accurate scheme tolerant against diverse tampering. We analyze the error probability and experimentally confirm that the proposed method accurately restores the tampered pixels. We also show two variations based on the fact that the authentication data used for deriving the watermark is a maximum length sequence code.