Robust, Blindly-Detectable, and Semi-Reversible Technique of Audio Watermarking Based on Cochlear Delay Characteristics

Masashi UNOKI  Ryota MIYAUCHI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E98-D   No.1   pp.38-48
Publication Date: 2015/01/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2014MUP0017
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Enriched Multimedia)
cochlear delay characteristics,  chirp z-transform,  inaudibility,  blind detection,  frame synchronization,  semi-reversible watermarking,  

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We previously proposed an inaudible non-blind digital-audio watermarking approach based on cochlear delay (CD) characteristics. There are, however, three remaining issues with regard to blind-detectability, frame synchronization related to confidentiality, and reversibility. We attempted to solve these issues in developing the proposed approach by taking blind-detectability and reversibility of audio watermarking into consideration. Frame synchronization was also incorporated into the proposed approach to improve confidentiality. We evaluated inaudibility, robustness, and reversibility with the new approach by carrying out three objective tests (PEAQ, LSD, and bit-detection or SNR) and six robustness tests. The results revealed that inaudible, robust, blindly-detectable, and semi-reversible watermarking based on CD could be accomplished.