97-mW 8-Phase CMOS VCO and Dividers for a 134-GHz PLL Synthesizer

Kunihiko IIZUKA

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E98-C    No.7    pp.685-692
Publication Date: 2015/07/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E98.C.685
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Technology)
Category: Oscillators/Amplifiers
CMOS,  8-phase VCO,  divider,  ILFD,  

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In this paper, a 97-mW 8-phase CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and dividers covering the entire VCO oscillation range for a 134-GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer are presented. The dividers have two injection-locked frequency dividers (ILFDs), one with and one without an inductor, and a pulse-swallowing counter with a differential dual-modulus prescaler. The VCO has a fundamental oscillation frequency range of 131.8 GHz to 134.3 GHz, achieved by controlling the back-gate voltage, which is also used to tune the locking range of divide-by-2 and divide-by-3 dividers. The ratio between the measured VCO oscillation frequencies and output frequencies of dividers is in good agreement with the target ratio. This indicates that the dividers covered the entire VCO oscillation range. We fabricated the VCO and dividers with a chip core area of 180 µm × 100 µm implemented in a 65-nm CMOS process. The total power consumption was 97 mW at a 1.2-V supply voltage.