A Camera and LED-Based Medium Access Control Scheme for Wireless LANs

Ryo NISHIOKA  Takayuki NISHIO  Masahiro MORIKURA  Koji YAMAMOTO  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E98-B   No.5   pp.917-926
Publication Date: 2015/05/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.E98.B.917
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
Keyword: 
WLAN,  visual MIMO,  medium access control,  CSMA/CA,  quality of experience,  optical camera communications,  

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Summary: 
The IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN (WLAN) is based on carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol. CSMA/CA uses a backoff mechanism to avoid collisions among stations (STAs). One disadvantage of backoff mechanisms is that STAs must wait for some period of time before transmission, which degrades spectral efficiency. Moreover, a backoff algorithm cannot completely avoid collisions. We have proposed a novel medium access control (MAC) scheme called the visual recognition-based medium access control (VRMAC) scheme, which uses an LED-camera communication technique. STAs send media-access request messages by blinking their LEDs in VRMAC scheme. An access point (AP) receives the messages via its camera, and then allocates transmission opportunities to the STAs by transmitting control frames. Since the transmission rate of the LED-camera communication is lower than WLAN transmission, the delay of access requesting causes and it could decrease the system throughput of the VRMAC system based WLAN. We reveal the effect of the delay for TCP flows and propose enhanced access procedures to eliminate the effect of the delay. Our simulation results demonstrate that VRMAC scheme increases the system throughput in UDP and TCP traffic. Moreover, the scenario-based evaluations reveal that VRMAC scheme also decreases the session delay which is a metric of quality of experience (QoE) for TCP applications.