Energy-Efficient and Throughput Maximization Scheme for Sensor-Aided Cognitive Radio Networks

Hiep VU-VAN  Insoo KOO  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E98-B   No.10   pp.1996-2003
Publication Date: 2015/10/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.E98.B.1996
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on 5G Radio Access Networks―Part II: Multi-RAT Heterogeneous Networks and Smart Radio Technologies)
cognitive radio,  energy harvesting,  POMDP,  throughput maximization,  energy-efficiency,  

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A cognitive radio user (CU) can get assistance from sensor nodes (SN) to perform spectrum sensing. However, the SNs are often powered by a finite-capacity battery, which can maintain operations of the SNs over a short time. Therefore, energy-efficiency of the SNs becomes a crucial problem. In this paper, an SN is considered to be a device with an energy harvester that can harvest energy from a non-radio frequency (non-RF) energy resource while performing other actions concurrently. In any one time slot, in order to maintain the required sensing accuracy of the CR network and to conserve energy in the SNs, only a small number of SNs are required to sense the primary user (PU) signal, and other SNs are kept silent to save energy. For this, an algorithm to divide all SNs into groups that can satisfy the required sensing accuracy of the network, is proposed. In a time slot, each SN group can be assigned one of two actions: stay silent, or be active to perform sensing. The problem of determining the optimal action for all SN groups to maximize throughput of the CR network is formulated as a framework of a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), in which the effect of the current time slot's action on the throughput of future time slots is considered. The solution to the problem, that is the decision mode of the SN groups (i.e., active or silent), depends on the residual energy and belief of absence probability of the PU signal. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can improve energy efficiency of CR networks compared with other conventional schemes.