Adaptively and Unconditionally Secure Conversion Protocols between Ramp and Linear Secret Sharing

Ryo KIKUCHI  Dai IKARASHI  Koki HAMADA  Koji CHIDA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E98-A   No.1   pp.223-231
Publication Date: 2015/01/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E98.A.223
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Cryptography and Information Security)
Category: Foundation
Keyword: 
secret sharing scheme,  multiparty computation,  unconditional security,  active security,  honest majority,  

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Summary: 
Secret sharing (SS) has been extensively studied as for both secure data storage and a fundamental building block for multiparty computation (MPC). Recently, Kikuchi et al. proposed a passively and unconditionally secure conversion protocol that converts from a share of a ramp scheme to another of homomorphic SS scheme. The share-size of the ramp scheme is small, and the homomorphic SS scheme is a class of SS schemes that includes Shamir's and replicated SS schemes, which are convenient for MPC. Therefore, their protocol is a conversion from an SS scheme whose share-size is small to MPC-friendly SS schemes, and can be applied to reduce the amount of data storage while maintaining extendibility to MPC. We propose five unconditionally and actively secure protocols in the honest majority. In this paper, we consider a privacy and correctness as security requirement and does not consider a robustness: A cheat caused by an active adversary must be detected. These protocols consist of two conversion protocols, two reveal protocols and a protocol generating specific randomness. Main protocols among them are two conversion protocols for bilateral conversion between a ramp scheme and linear SS scheme, and the others are building blocks of the main protocols. Linear SS scheme is a subset of homomorphic SS scheme but includes both Shamir's and replicated SS schemes. Therefore, these main protocols are conversions between an SS scheme whose share-size is small to MPC-friendly SS schemes. These main protocols are unconditionally and actively secure so if MPC protocols used after the conversion are actively secure, the whole system involving SS scheme, conversion, and MPC protocols can be unconditionally and actively secure by using our main protocols. One of our two main protocols is the first to convert from MPC-friendly SS schemes to the ramp scheme. This enhances applications, such as secure backup, of the conversion protocol. Other than the two main protocols, we propose a protocol for generating specific randomnesses and two reveal protocols as building blocks. The latter two reveal protocols are actively and unconditionally secure in the honest majority and requires O(n||F||)-bit communication per revealing, and we believe that it is independently interest.