A General Framework and Algorithms for Score Level Indexing and Fusion in Biometric Identification

Takao MURAKAMI  Kenta TAKAHASHI  Kanta MATSUURA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E97-D   No.3   pp.510-523
Publication Date: 2014/03/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E97.D.510
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Information Network
Keyword: 
biometric identification,  score level fusion,  missing score,  metric space indexing,  pseudo-score,  multi-biometric search,  

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Summary: 
Biometric identification has recently attracted attention because of its convenience: it does not require a user ID nor a smart card. However, both the identification error rate and response time increase as the number of enrollees increases. In this paper, we combine a score level fusion scheme and a metric space indexing scheme to improve the accuracy and response time in biometric identification, using only scores as information sources. We firstly propose a score level indexing and fusion framework which can be constructed from the following three schemes: (I) a pseudo-score based indexing scheme, (II) a multi-biometric search scheme, and (III) a score level fusion scheme which handles missing scores. A multi-biometric search scheme can be newly obtained by applying a pseudo-score based indexing scheme to multi-biometric identification. We secondly propose the NBS (Naive Bayes search) scheme as a multi-biometric search scheme and discuss its optimality with respect to the retrieval error rate. We evaluated our proposal using the datasets of multiple fingerprints and face scores from multiple matchers. The results showed that our proposal significantly improved the accuracy of the unimodal biometrics while reducing the average number of score computations in both the datasets.