A Copyright- and Privacy-Protected Image Trading System Using Fingerprinting in Discrete Wavelet Domain with JPEG 2000

Wannida SAE-TANG  Shenchuan LIU  Masaaki FUJIYOSHI  Hitoshi KIYA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E97-A   No.11   pp.2107-2113
Publication Date: 2014/11/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E97.A.2107
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Smart Multimedia & Communication Systems)
visually encrypted images,  image compression,  amplitude-only image,  phase-only image,  

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In this paper, a compression-friendly copyright- and privacy-protected image trading system is proposed. In the image trading system, the copyright of the image and the consumer's privacy is important. In addition, it should preserve existing image compression standards. In the proposed method, for privacy protection, the content provider (CP) multiplies random signs to the discrete wavelet transformed (DWTed) coefficients of an image to generate the visually encrypted image. The proposed visually protected images can be efficiently compressed by using JPEG 2000 which compresses the image in the DWTed domain as well. For copyright protection, the trusted third party (TTP) applies digital fingerprinting to the image in the encrypted domain. While in the conventional system, the amplitude-only image (AOI) which is the inversely transformed amplitude spectra of an image is used for privacy protection. Since, the AOI consists of real numbers, to store and transmit the AOI, it has to be quantized before compression. Therefore, quantization errors cannot be avoided in the conventional system. On the other hand, the proposed method applies the digital fingerprint in the DWTed domain, so clipping errors in decoding the image by the TTP is avoided. In addition, only a seed number which is input to a pseudo random number generator is shared between the CP and the consumer, whereas an extra image is shared in the conventional systems. Experimental results show that the proposed system is efficient in terms of privacy protection, compression performance, quality of fingerprinted images, and correct fingerprint extracting performance.