Print-and-Scan Resilient Watermarking through Polarizing DCT Coefficients

Chun-Hung CHEN  Yuan-Liang TANG  Wen-Shyong HSIEH  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E96-D   No.10   pp.2208-2214
Publication Date: 2013/10/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E96.D.2208
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Information Network
digital watermarking,  print-and-scan attack,  discrete cosine transform,  geometric distortion,  

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Digital watermarking techniques have been used to assert the ownerships of digital images. The ownership information is embedded in an image as a watermark so that the owner of the image can be identified. However, many types of attacks have been used in attempts to break or remove embedded watermarks. Therefore, the watermark should be very robust against various kinds of attacks. Among them, the print-and-scan (PS) attack is very challenging because it not only alters the pixel values but also changes the positions of the original pixels. In this paper, we propose a watermarking system operating in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. The polarities of the DCT coefficients are modified for watermark embedding. This is done by considering the properties of DCT coefficients under the PS attack. The proposed system is able to maintain the image quality after watermarking and the embedded watermark is very robust against the PS attack as well.