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Frequency Response and Applications of Optical Electric-Field Sensor at Frequencies from 20 kHz to 180 GHz
Hiroyoshi TOGO David MORENO-DOMINGUEZ Naoya KUKUTSU
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics
Publication Date: 2013/02/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Recent Progress in Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Photonics Technology)
electric-field sensor, pockels effect, equivalent sampling method, antenna measurement, EMC,
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This article describes the frequency response and the applications of the optical electric-field sensor consisting of a 1 mm1 mm1 mm CdTe crystal mounted on the tip of an optical fiber, which theoretically possesses the potential to cover the frequency band from below megahertz to terahertz. We utilize a capacitor, GTEM-Cell, and standard gain horn antennas for applying a free-space electric field to the optical sensor at frequencies from 20 kHz to 1 GHz, from 1 GHz to 18 GHz, and from 10 to 180 GHz, respectively. An electric-field measurement demonstrates its flat frequency response within a 6-dB range from 20 kHz to 50 GHz except for the resonance due to the piezo-electric effect at a frequency around 1 MHz. The sensitivity increases due to the resonance of the radio frequency wave propagating in the crystal at the frequencies higher than 50 GHz. These experimental results demonstrate that the optical electric-field sensor is a superior tool for the wide-band measurement which is impossible with conventional sensors such as a dipole, a loop, and a horn antenna. In transient electrostatic discharge measurements, electric-field mapping, and near-field antenna measurements, the optical electric-field sensor provide the useful information for the deterioration diagnosis and the lifetime prognosis of electric circuits and devices. These applications of the optical electric-field sensor are regarded as promising ways for sowing the seeds of evolution in electric-field measurements for antenna measurement, EMC, and EMI.