An Image Trading System Using Amplitude-Only Images for Privacy- and Copyright-Protection

Shenchuan LIU  Masaaki FUJIYOSHI  Hitoshi KIYA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E96-A    No.6    pp.1245-1252
Publication Date: 2013/06/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E96.A.1245
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Circuit, System, and Computer Technologies)
amplitude-only images,  phase-only images,  copyright protection,  privacy protection,  digital fingerprinting,  data hiding,  

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This paper introduces amplitude-only images to image trading systems in which not only the copyright of images but also the privacy of consumers are protected. In the latest framework for image trading systems, an image is divided into an unrecognizable piece and a recognizable but distorted piece to simultaneously protect the privacy of a consumer and the copyright of the image. The proposed scheme uses amplitude-only images which are completely unrecognizable as the former piece, whereas the conventional schemes leave recognizable parts to the piece which degrades privacy protection performance. Moreover, the proposed scheme improves the robustness against copyright violation regardless of the used digital fingerprinting technique, because an amplitude-only image is larger than the piece in the conventional scheme. In addition, phase-only image is used as the second piece in the proposed scheme, the consumer can confirm what he/she bought. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.