A Correlation-Based Watermarking Technique of 3-D Meshes via Cyclic Signal Processing

Toshiyuki UTO  Yuka TAKEMURA  Hidekazu KAMITANI  Kenji OHUE  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E95-D   No.5   pp.1272-1279
Publication Date: 2012/05/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E95.D.1272
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Recent Advances in Multimedia Signal Processing Techniques and Applications)
Category: Image Processing
watermarking,  spread spectrum code,  3-D mesh,  cyclic signal processing,  

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This paper describes a blind watermarking scheme through cyclic signal processing. Due to various rapid networks, there is a growing demand of copyright protection for multimedia data. As efficient watermarking of images, there exist two major approaches: a quantization-based method and a correlation-based method. In this paper, we proposes a correlation-based watermarking technique of three-dimensional (3-D) polygonal models using the fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). For generating a watermark with desirable properties, similar to a pseudonoise signal, an impulse signal on a two-dimensional (2-D) space is spread through the FFT, the multiplication of a complex sinusoid signal, and the inverse FFT. This watermark, i.e., spread impulse signal, in a transform domain is converted to a spatial domain by an inverse wavelet transform, and embedded into 3-D data aligned by the principle component analysis (PCA). In the detection procedure, after realigning the watermarked mesh model through the PCA, we map the 3-D data on the 2-D space via block segmentation and averaging operation. The 2-D data are processed by the inverse system, i.e., the FFT, the division of the complex sinusoid signal, and the inverse FFT. From the resulting 2-D signal, we detect the position of the maximum value as a signature. For 3-D bunny models, detection rates and information capacity are shown to evaluate the performance of the proposed method.