Two-Stage Block-Based Whitened Principal Component Analysis with Application to Single Sample Face Recognition

Biao WANG  Wenming YANG  Weifeng LI  Qingmin LIAO  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E95-D   No.3   pp.853-860
Publication Date: 2012/03/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E95.D.853
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
face recognition,  one sample problem,  principal component analysis,  whitening transform,  K-Nearest Neighbors,  

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In the task of face recognition, a challenging issue is the one sample problem, namely, there is only one training sample per person. Principal component analysis (PCA) seeks a low-dimensional representation that maximizes the global scatter of the training samples, and thus is suitable for one sample problem. However, standard PCA is sensitive to the outliers and emphasizes more on the relatively distant sample pairs, which implies that the close samples belonging to different classes tend to be merged together. In this paper, we propose two-stage block-based whitened PCA (TS-BWPCA) to address this problem. For a specific probe image, in the first stage, we seek the K-Nearest Neighbors (K-NNs) in the whitened PCA space and thus exclude most of samples which are distant to the probe. In the second stage, we maximize the “local” scatter by performing whitened PCA on the K nearest samples, which could explore the most discriminative information for similar classes. Moreover, block-based scheme is incorporated to address the small sample problem. This two-stage process is actually a coarse-to-fine scheme that can maximize both global and local scatter, and thus overcomes the aforementioned shortcomings of PCA. Experimental results on FERET face database show that our proposed algorithm is better than several representative approaches.