High Uniqueness Arbiter-Based PUF Circuit Utilizing RG-DTM Scheme for Identification and Authentication Applications


IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E95-C   No.4   pp.468-477
Publication Date: 2012/04/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E95.C.468
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Solid-State Circuit Design – Architecture, Circuit, Device and Design Methodology)
Physical Unclonable Function (PUF),  Arbiter-PUF,  High Uniqueness,  Responses Generation according to the Delay-Time Measurement (RG-DTM) scheme,  

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Silicon Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have been proposed to exploit inherent characteristics caused by process variations, such as transistor size, threshold voltage and so on, and to produce an inexpensive and tamper-resistant device such as IC identification, authentication and key generation. We have focused on the arbiter-PUF utilizing the relative delay-time difference between the equivalent paths. The conventional arbiter-PUF has a technical issue, which is low uniqueness caused by the ununiformity on response-generation. To enhance the uniqueness, a novel arbiter-based PUF utilizing the Response Generation according to the Delay Time Measurement (RG-DTM) scheme, has been proposed. In the conventional arbiter-PUF, the response 0 or 1 is assigned according to the single threshold of relative delay-time difference. On the contrary, the response 0 or 1 is assigned according to the multiple threshold of relative delay-time difference in the RG-DTM PUF. The conventional and RG-DTM PUF were designed and fabricated with 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The Hamming distances (HDs) between different chips, which indicate the uniqueness, were calculated by 256-bit responses from the identical challenges on each chip. The ideal distribution of HDs, which indicates high uniqueness, is achieved in the RG-DTM PUF using 16 thresholds of relative delay-time differences. The generative stability, which is the fluctuation of responses in the same environment, and the environmental stability, which is the changes of responses in the different environment were also evaluated. There is a trade-off between high uniqueness and high stability, however, the experimental data shows that the RG-DTM PUF has extremely smaller false matching probability in the identification compared to the conventional PUF.