Dynamics of Feedback-Induced Packet Delay in ISP Router-Level Topologies

Takahiro HIRAYAMA  Shin'ichi ARAKAWA  Ken-ichi ARAI  Masayuki MURATA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E95-B   No.9   pp.2785-2793
Publication Date: 2012/09/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.E95.B.2785
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Fundamental Theories for Communications
power-law degree distribution,  ISP router-level topology,  traffic dynamics,  TCP,  

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Internet behavior is becoming more complex due to ever-changing networking technologies and applications. Thus, understanding and controlling the complex behavior of the Internet are important for designing future networks. One of the complex behaviors of the Internet is traffic dynamics. Previous studies revealed that flow control in the transport layer affects the traffic dynamics of the Internet. However, it is not clear how the topological structure impacts traffic dynamics. In this paper, we investigate packet delay dynamics and traffic fluctuation in ISP router-level topologies where the degree distribution exhibits a power-law nature, and the nodes interact via end-to-end feedback control functionality. We show the packet delay dynamics of the BA topologies generated by the Barabasi-Albert (BA) model and the ISP router-level topologies. Simulation results show that the end-to-end delay distributions exhibit a heavy tail in the TCP model. Moreover, the number of links with highly fluctuating queue length increases dramatically compared to that in the stop-and-wait model. Even in this case, the high-modularity structures of the ISP topologies reduce the number of highly fluctuating links compared with the BA topologies.