Low Complexity Compensation of Frequency Dependent I/Q Imbalance and Carrier Frequency Offset for Direct Conversion Receivers

Leonardo LANANTE, Jr.  Masayuki KUROSAKI  Hiroshi OCHI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E95-B    No.2    pp.484-492
Publication Date: 2012/02/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.E95.B.484
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
carrier frequency offset,  I/Q imbalance,  RTL design,  

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Conventional algorithms for the joint estimation of carrier frequency offset (CFO) and I/Q imbalance no longer work when the I/Q imbalance depends on the frequency. In order to correct the imbalance across many frequencies, the compensator needed is a filter as opposed to a simple gain and phase compensator. Although, algorithms for estimating the optimal coefficients of this filter exist, their complexity is too high for hardware implementation. In this paper we present a new low complexity algorithm for joint estimation of CFO and frequency dependent I/Q imbalance. For the first part, we derive the estimation scheme using the linear least squares algorithm and examine its floating point performance compared to conventional algorithms. We show that the proposed algorithm can completely eliminate BER floor caused by CFO and I/Q imbalance at a lesser complexity compared to conventional algorithms. For the second part, we examine the hardware complexity in fixed point hardware and latency of the proposed algorithm. Based on BER performance, the circuit needs a wordlength of at least 16 bits in order to properly estimate CFO and I/Q imbalance. In this configuration, the circuit is able to achieve a maximum speed of 115.9 MHz in a Virtex 5 FPGA.