A 115 mW 1 Gbps Bit-Serial Layered LDPC Decoder for WiMAX

Xiongxin ZHAO  Xiao PENG  Zhixiang CHEN  Dajiang ZHOU  Satoshi GOTO  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E95-A   No.12   pp.2384-2391
Publication Date: 2012/12/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E95.A.2384
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on VLSI Design and CAD Algorithms)
Category: High-Level Synthesis and System-Level Design
Keyword: 
WiMAX,  bit-serial,  layered scheduling,  QC-LDPC,  

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Summary: 
Structured quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes have been adopted in many wireless communication standards, such as WiMAX, Wi-Fi and WPAN. To completely support the variable code rate (multi-rate) and variable code length (multi-length) implementation for universal applications, the partial-parallel layered LDPC decoder architecture is straightforward and widely used in the decoder design. In this paper, we propose a high parallel LDPC decoder architecture for WiMAX system with dedicated ASIC design. Different from the block by block decoding schedule in most partial-parallel layered architectures, all the messages within each layer are updated simultaneously in the proposed fully-parallel layered decoder architecture. Meanwhile, the message updating is separated into bit-serial style to reduce hardware complexity. A 6-bit implementation is adopted in the decoder chip, since simulations demonstrate that 6-bit quantization is the best trade-off between performance and complexity. Moreover, the two-layer concurrent processing technique is proposed to further increase the parallelism for low code rates. Implementation results show that the decoder chip saves 22.2% storage bits and only takes 2448 clock cycles per iteration for all the code rates defined in WiMAX standard. It occupies 3.36 mm2 in SMIC 65 nm CMOS process, and realizes 1056 Mbps throughput at 1.2 V, 110 MHz and 10 iterations with 115 mW power occupation, which infers a power efficiency of 10.9 pJ/bit/iteration. The power efficiency is improved 63.6% in normalized comparison with the state-of-art WiMAX LDPC decoder.