Efficient Combination of Likelihood Recycling and Batch Calculation for Fast Acoustic Likelihood Calculation

Atsunori OGAWA  Satoshi TAKAHASHI  Atsushi NAKAMURA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E94-D   No.3   pp.648-658
Publication Date: 2011/03/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E94.D.648
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Speech and Hearing
Keyword: 
fast acoustic likelihood calculation,  state likelihood recycling,  batch state likelihood calculation,  combined acceleration technique,  acoustic backing-off,  

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Summary: 
This paper proposes an efficient combination of state likelihood recycling and batch state likelihood calculation for accelerating acoustic likelihood calculation in an HMM-based speech recognizer. Recycling and batch calculation are each based on different technical approaches, i.e. the former is a purely algorithmic technique while the latter fully exploits computer architecture. To accelerate the recognition process further by combining them efficiently, we introduce conditional fast processing and acoustic backing-off. Conditional fast processing is based on two criteria. The first potential activity criterion is used to control not only the recycling of state likelihoods at the current frame but also the precalculation of state likelihoods for several succeeding frames. The second reliability criterion and acoustic backing-off are used to control the choice of recycled or batch calculated state likelihoods when they are contradictory in the combination and to prevent word accuracies from degrading. Large vocabulary spontaneous speech recognition experiments using four different CPU machines under two environmental conditions showed that, compared with the baseline recognizer, recycling and batch calculation, our combined acceleration technique further reduced both of the acoustic likelihood calculation time and the total recognition time. We also performed detailed analyses to reveal each technique's acceleration and environmental dependency mechanisms by classifying types of state likelihoods and counting each of them. The analysis results comfirmed the effectiveness of the combined acceleration technique.