A 45-nm 37.3 GOPS/W Heterogeneous Multi-Core SOC with 16/32 Bit Instruction-Set General-Purpose Core

Osamu NISHII  Yoichi YUYAMA  Masayuki ITO  Yoshikazu KIYOSHIGE  Yusuke NITTA  Makoto ISHIKAWA  Tetsuya YAMADA  Junichi MIYAKOSHI  Yasutaka WADA  Keiji KIMURA  Hironori KASAHARA  Hideo MAEJIMA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E94-C   No.4   pp.663-669
Publication Date: 2011/04/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E94.C.663
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Integrated Electronics
heterogeneous,  instruction set,  MMU,  

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We built a 12.4 mm12.4 mm, 45-nm CMOS, chip that integrates eight 648-MHz general purpose cores, two matrix processor (MX-2) cores, four flexible engine (FE) cores and media IP (VPU5) to establish heterogeneous multi-core chip architecture. The general purpose core had its IPC (instructions per cycle) performance enhanced by adding 32-bit instructions to the existing 16-bit fixed-length instruction set and executing up to two 32-bit instructions per cycle. Considering these five-to-seven years of embedded LSI and increasing trend of access-master within LSI, we predict that the memory usage of single core will not exceed 32-bit physical area (i.e. 4 GB), but chip-total memory usage will exceed 4 GB. Based on this prediction, the physical address was expanded from 32-bit to 40-bit. The fabricated chip was tested and a parallel operation of eight general purpose cores and four FE cores and eight data transfer units (DTU) is obtained on AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) encode processing.