A 0.25-µm Si-Ge Fully Integrated Pulse Transmitter with On-Chip Loop Antenna Array towards Beam-Formability for Millimeter-Wave Active Imaging

Nguyen Ngoc MAI KHANH  Masahiro SASAKI  Kunihiro ASADA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E94-C   No.10   pp.1626-1633
Publication Date: 2011/10/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E94.C.1626
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Technology)
Category: Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Antennas
Keyword: 
pulse transmitter,  loop antenna,  millimeter-wave,  integrated circuit,  array antenna,  

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Summary: 
This paper presents a 100–120-GHz pulse transmitter chip with a 5424 on-chip loop antenna array for the purpose of beam-formability in portable millimeter-wave (mm-wave) active imaging applications. We present a new idea for silicon-based mm-wave pulse beam-forming by using voltage-varied CMOS inverter chain. This 4-mm4-mm transmitter chip is designed and fabricated in a 2.5-V 0.25-µm 4-metal-layer Si-Ge Bi-CMOS process. The 30-µm30-µm loop antenna located on the top-metal layer operates as an coil in an integrated mm-wave pulse generator. Each of on-chip pulse generators employing under-damped/over-damped conditions to produce mm-wave pulses includes an R-L-C circuit, a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) operated as a switch and a CMOS inverter chain circuit for shaping the rising edge of the input clock. Simulation results by ADS 2009 and HSPICE show that loop antenna' inductance and resistance at 80–120-GHz are 51 pH and 3 Ω, respectively. A simulation performance of an integrated 136 loop antenna array illustrates the variation of maximum radiation angles depending on different phase values between array's elements. By using an mm-wave power meter, a 90–140-GHz standard horn antenna and a Schottky diode detector, several measured radiation patterns of this loop antenna array chip are achieved. From the measurement result, we demonstrate the possibility of an integrated mm-wave pulse generator for the purpose of beam-forming by changing power supplies of inverter chains.