Variation-Tolerance of a 65-nm Error-Hardened Dual-Modular-Redundancy Flip-Flop Measured by Shift-Register-Based Monitor Structures

Chikara HAMANAKA  Ryosuke YAMAMOTO  Jun FURUTA  Kanto KUBOTA  Kazutoshi KOBAYASHI  Hidetoshi ONODERA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E94-A   No.12   pp.2669-2675
Publication Date: 2011/12/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E94.A.2669
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on VLSI Design and CAD Algorithms)
Category: High-Level Synthesis and System-Level Design
soft error,  hardened design,  variability,  test structure,  shift register,  

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We show measurement results of variation-tolerance of an error-hardened dual-modular-redundancy flip-flop fabricated in a 65-nm process. The proposed error-hardened FF called BCDMR is very strong against soft errors and also robust to process variations. We propose a shift-register-based test structure to measure variations. The proposed test structure has features of constant pin count and fast measurement time. A 65 nm chip was fabricated including 40k FFs to measure variations. The variations of the proposed BCDMR FF are 74% and 55% smaller than those of the conventional BISER FF on the twin-well and triple-well structures respectively.