Precise Estimation of Cellular Radio Electromagnetic Field in Elevators and EMI Impact on Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers

Louis-Ray HARRIS  Takashi HIKAGE  Toshio NOJIMA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E92-C    No.9    pp.1182-1187
Publication Date: 2009/09/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E92.C.1182
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Recent Progress in Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Technologies and Their Applications)
Category: 
Keyword: 
cellular radio,  elevator,  implantable cardiac pacemaker,  electromagnetic interference,  finite-difference-time-domain method,  

Full Text: PDF(1.6MB)>>
Buy this Article



Summary: 
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible impact of cellular phones' signals on implantable cardiac pacemakers in elevators. This is achieved by carrying out precise numerical simulations based on the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain method to examine the electromagnetic fields in elevator models. In order to examine the realistic and complicated situations where humans are present in the elevator, we apply the realistic homogeneous human phantom and cellular radios operating in the frequency bands 800 MHz, 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz. These computed results of field strength inside the elevator are compared with a certain reference level determined from the experimentally obtained maximum interference distance of implantable cardiac pacemakers. This enables us to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the EMI risk to pacemakers by cellular radio transmission. The results show that for the case when up to 5 mobile radio users are present in the elevator model used, there is no likelihood of pacemaker malfunction for the frequency bands 800 MHz, 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz.