Steady-State Kalman Filtering for Channel Estimation in OFDM Systems for Rayleigh Fading Channels

Maduranga LIYANAGE  Iwao SASASE  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E92-B   No.7   pp.2452-2460
Publication Date: 2009/07/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.E92.B.2452
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
Keyword: 
orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM),  channel estimation,  steady-state,  Kalman filter,  

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Summary: 
Kalman filters are effective channel estimators but they have the drawback of having heavy calculations when filtering needs to be done in each sample for a large number of subcarriers. In our paper we obtain the steady-state Kalman gain to estimate the channel state by utilizing the characteristics of pilot subcarriers in OFDM, and thus a larger portion of the calculation burden can be eliminated. Steady-state value is calculated by transforming the vector Kalman filtering in to scalar domain by exploiting the filter charactertics when pilot subcarriers are used for channel estimation. Kalman filters operate optimally in the steady-state condition. Therefore by avoiding the convergence period of the Kalman gain, the proposed scheme is able to perform better than the conventional method. Also, driving noise variance of the channel is difficult to obtain practical situations and accurate knowledge is important for the proper operation of the Kalman filter. Therefore, we extend our scheme to operate in the absence of the knowledge of driving noise variance by utilizing received Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Simulation results show considerable estimator performance gain can be obtained compared to the conventional Kalman filter.