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Recognizing Reverberant Speech Based on Amplitude and Frequency Modulation
Yotaro KUBO Shigeki OKAWA Akira KUREMATSU Katsuhiko SHIRAI
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2008/03/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Robust Speech Processing in Realistic Environments)
Category: ASR under Reverberant Conditions
speech recognition, temporal feature, tandem approach, multistream combination, reverberant speech,
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We have attempted to recognize reverberant speech using a novel speech recognition system that depends on not only the spectral envelope and amplitude modulation but also frequency modulation. Most of the features used by modern speech recognition systems, such as MFCC, PLP, and TRAPS, are derived from the energy envelopes of narrowband signals by discarding the information in the carrier signals. However, some experiments show that apart from the spectral/time envelope and its modulation, the information on the zero-crossing points of the carrier signals also plays a significant role in human speech recognition. In realistic environments, a feature that depends on the limited properties of the signal may easily be corrupted. In order to utilize an automatic speech recognizer in an unknown environment, using the information obtained from other signal properties and combining them is important to minimize the effects of the environment. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze carrier signals that are discarded in most of the speech recognition systems. Our system consists of two nonlinear discriminant analyzers that use multilayer perceptrons. One of the nonlinear discriminant analyzers is HATS, which can capture the amplitude modulation of narrowband signals efficiently. The other nonlinear discriminant analyzer is a pseudo-instantaneous frequency analyzer proposed in this paper. This analyzer can capture the frequency modulation of narrowband signals efficiently. The combination of these two analyzers is performed by the method based on the entropy of the feature introduced by Okawa et al. In this paper, in Sect. 2, we first introduce pseudo-instantaneous frequencies to capture a property of the carrier signal. The previous AM analysis method are described in Sect. 3. The proposed system is described in Sect. 4. The experimental setup is presented in Sect. 5, and the results are discussed in Sect. 6. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method by continuous digit recognition of reverberant speech. The proposed system exhibits considerable improvement with regard to the MFCC feature extraction system.