Designs and Fabrications of Photonic Crystal Fiber Couplers with Air Hole Controlled Tapers

Hirohisa YOKOTA  Hiroki KAWASHIRI  Yutaka SASAKI  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E91-C   No.7   pp.1136-1141
Publication Date: 2008/07/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e91-c.7.1136
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Joint Special Section on Opto-electronics and Communications toward NGN and beyond)
Category: 
Keyword: 
photonic crystal fiber,  optical fiber coupler,  beam propagation method,  CO2 laser irradiation technique,  

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Summary: 
For the construction of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) systems using their unique properties, a PCF coupler (PCFC) is one of the key components of the systems. The characteristics of the PCFC depend on the state of air holes in the tapered region of the PCFC because the state of air holes in the tapered region affects light propagation in the PCFC taper. In this paper, coupling characteristics of PCFCs were theoretically investigated. In PCFCs with air hole remaining tapers, we found that a smaller elongation ratio i.e. a stronger elongation is required to obtain optical coupling as an air hole pitch or a ratio of air hole diameter to pitch is larger. In PCFCs with air hole collapsed tapers, it was clarified that a dependence of extinction ratio on air hole collapsed elongation ratio is higher for smaller elongation ratio. It was also clarified that an air hole remaining PCFC has slow wavelength characteristics in extinction ratio compared to an air hole collapsed PCFC. Air hole remaining PCFCs and air hole collapsed PCFCs were fabricated using a CO2 laser irradiation technique. We could successfully control whether air holes in the PCFC taper were remaining or collapsed by adjusting the irradiated laser power in the elongation process of the PCFC fabrication. It was experimentally clarified that the air hole remaining PCFC has slow wavelength characteristics in extinction ratio compared to the air hole collapsed PCFC. The tendencies of the measured wavelength characteristics of PCFCs agree with those of numerical results.