Simultaneous Measurement of Antenna Gain and Complex Permittivity of Liquid in Near-Field Region Using Weighted Regression

Nozomu ISHII  Hiroki SHIGA  Naoto IKARASHI  Ken-ichi SATO  Lira HAMADA  Soichi WATANABE  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E91-B   No.6   pp.1831-1837
Publication Date: 2008/06/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1093/ietcom/e91-b.6.1831
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on 2007 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation)
Category: Measurements
SAR,  near-field region,  absolute gain,  Friis transmission equation,  least square method,  

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As a technique for calibrating electric-field probes used in standardized SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) assessment, we have studied the technique using the Friis transmission formula in the tissue-equivalent liquid. It is difficult to measure power transmission between two reference antennas in the far-field region due to large attenuation in the liquid. This means that the conventional Friis transmission formula cannot be applied to our measurement so that we developed an extension of this formula that is valid in the near-field region. In this paper, the method of weighted least squares is introduced to reduce the effect of the noise in the measurement system when the gain of the antenna operated in the liquid is determined by the curve-fitting technique. And we examine how to choose the fitting range to reduce the uncertainty of the estimated gain.