New Graph Calculi for Planar Non-3-Colorable Graphs

Yoichi HANATANI  Takashi HORIYAMA  Kazuo IWAMA  Suguru TAMAKI  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E91-A   No.9   pp.2301-2307
Publication Date: 2008/09/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1093/ietfec/e91-a.9.2301
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications)
Category: 
Keyword: 
Hajos calculus,  planar graph,  coloring,  proof systems,  

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Summary: 
The Hajos calculus is a nondeterministic procedure which generates the class of non-3-colorable graphs. If all non-3-colorable graphs can be constructed in polynomial steps by the calculus, then NP = co-NP holds. Up to date, however, it remains open whether there exists a family of graphs that cannot be generated in polynomial steps. To attack this problem, we propose two graph calculi PHC and PHC* that generate non-3-colorable planar graphs, where intermediate graphs in the calculi are also restricted to be planar. Then we prove that PHC and PHC* are sound and complete. We also show that PHC* can polynomially simulate PHC.