New Message Differences for Collision Attacks on MD4 and MD5

Kazuo OHTA

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E91-A    No.1    pp.55-63
Publication Date: 2008/01/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1093/ietfec/e91-a.1.55
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Cryptography and Information Security)
Category: Hash Functions
collision attack,  message difference,  MD4,  MD5,  hash function,  

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In 2005, collision resistance of several hash functions was broken by Wang et al. The strategy of determining message differences is the most important part of collision attacks against hash functions. So far, many researchers have tried to analyze Wang et al.'s method and proposed improved collision attacks. Although several researches proposed improved attacks, all improved results so far were based on the same message differences proposed by Wang et al. In this paper, we propose new message differences for collision attacks on MD4 and MD5. Our message differences of MD4 can generate a collision with complexity of less than two MD4 computations, which is faster than the original Wang et al.'s attack, and moreover, than the all previous attacks. This is the first result that improves the complexity of collision attack by using different message differences from Wang et al.'s. Regarding MD5, so far, no other message difference from Wang et al.'s is known. Therefore, study for constructing method of other message differences on MD5 should be interesting. Our message differences of MD5 generates a collision with complexity of 242 MD5 computations, which is slower than the latest best attack. However, since our attack needs only 1 bit difference, it has some advantages in terms of message freedom of collision messages.