Automatic Generation of User Manuals without Automation Surprises for Human-Machine Systems Modeled by Discrete Event Systems

Toshimitsu USHIO  Satoshi TAKAHASHI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E91-A   No.11   pp.3237-3244
Publication Date: 2008/11/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1093/ietfec/e91-a.11.3237
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Concurrent/Real-time and Hybrid Systems: Theory and Applications)
discrete event systems,  human-machine systems,  user manual,  automation surprises,  

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In human-machine systems, a user gets abstracted information of a machine via an interface and operates it referring to a manual. If a manual has an erroneous description leading to automation surprises, the user may be lost in his/her operations so that he/she may make a serious human error. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for generating a manual by which automation surprises never occur. We model the machine and the interface as a discrete event system and a mapping from machine's state to a display of the interface, respectively. First, we represent a manual as a finite language and model behavior of the system operated by the user with the manual as a tree called an operational tree. Next, we characterize three automation surprises using the tree. Finally, we propose an algorithm for generating an operational tree by which the machine reaches a target state.