Data Hiding in Binary Images with Distortion-Minimizing Capabilities by Optimal Block Pattern Coding and Dynamic Programming Techniques

I-Shi LEE  Wen-Hsiang TSAI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E90-D   No.8   pp.1142-1150
Publication Date: 2007/08/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1093/ietisy/e90-d.8.1142
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Image Recognition and Understanding)
data hiding,  binary image,  block pattern encoding,  dynamic programming,  image distortion minimization,  

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A new method for data hiding in binary images based on block pattern coding and dynamic programming with distortion-minimizing capabilities is proposed. Up to three message data bits can be embedded into each 22 block in an input image by changing the block's pixel pattern into another, which represents the value of the message data bits as a code according to a block pattern encoding table. And extraction of hidden message data is accomplished by block pattern decoding. To minimize the resulting image distortion, two optimization techniques are proposed. The first is to use multiple block pattern encoding tables, from which an optimal one is selected specifically for each input image, and the second is to use a dynamic programming algorithm to divide the message data into bit segments for optimal embedding in a sense of minimizing the number of binary bit flippings. Accordingly, not only more data bits can be embedded in an image block on the average, but the resulting image distortion is also reduced in an optimal way. Experimental results are also included to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.