Low-Complexity Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Array Code Acquisition

Hua-Lung YANG  Wen-Rong WU  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E90-B   No.5   pp.1193-1200
Publication Date: 2007/05/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1093/ietcom/e90-b.5.1193
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
Keyword: 
code acquisition,  synchronization,  DS/CDMA,  antenna arrays,  adaptive filtering,  conjugate gradient algorithm,  

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Summary: 
An adaptive array code acquisition for direct-sequence/code-division multiple access (DS/CDMA) systems was recently proposed to enhance the performance of the conventional correlator-based method. The scheme consists of an adaptive spatial and an adaptive temporal filter, and can simultaneously perform beamforming and code-delay estimation. Unfortunately, the scheme uses a least-mean-square (LMS) adaptive algorithm, and its convergence is slow. Although the recursive-least-squares (RLS) algorithm can be applied, the computational complexity will greatly increase. In this paper, we solve the dilemma with a low-complexity conjugate gradient (LCG) algorithm, which can be considered as a special case of a modified conjugate gradient (MCG) algorithm. Unlike the original conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm developed for adaptive applications, the proposed method, exploiting the special structure inherent in the input correlation matrix, requires a low computational-complexity. It can be shown that the computational complexity of the proposed method is on the same order of the LMS algorithm. However, the convergence rate is improved significantly. Simulation results show that the performance of adaptive array code acquisition with the proposed CG algorithm is comparable to that with the original CG algorithm.