Accurate Angle-of-Arrival Estimation Method in Real System by Applying Calibration and Spatial Smoothing

Panarat CHERNTANOMWONG  Jun-ichi TAKADA  Hiroyuki TSUJI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E90-B   No.10   pp.2915-2925
Publication Date: 2007/10/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1093/ietcom/e90-b.10.2915
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Antennas and Propagation
AOA estimation,  calibration,  spatial smoothing,  

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Although subspace-based methods for estimating the Angle of Arrival (AOA) require a precise array response to achieve highly accurate results, it is difficult to obtain this response in practice even though the antennas are calibrated. Therefore, a method of compensating for errors in calibration is required. This paper proposes a procedure to enable precise AOA estimates to be obtained in a real system by applying array calibration and spatial smoothing preprocessing (SSP). Measured data were collected from experiments using two scenarios, i.e., in an anechoic chamber and at an open site, where a single source signal arrived at the array antenna. All measured data were then calibrated by using data obtained at 0 deg in an anechoic chamber before the AOAs were estimated. Nevertheless, errors in the array response remained after calibration because errors in the AOA estimates could still be observed. SSP was then applied to the calibrated data to obtain more accurate AOA estimates. We found that SSP can reduce the random error in an array response obtained in a real system, leading to reduced errors in AOA estimates in the observed data. To generalize the problem that SSP can reduce random perturbation in the array response, simple expressions are illustrated and verified by Monte-Carlo simulation. Random gain and phase errors in the array response are only considered in this paper and ESPRIT was used to estimate the AOAs.