Manufacturability-Aware Design of Standard Cells

Hirokazu MUTA  Hidetoshi ONODERA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E90-A   No.12   pp.2682-2690
Publication Date: 2007/12/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1093/ietfec/e90-a.12.2682
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on VLSI Design and CAD Algorithms)
Category: Physical Design
manufacturability,  variability,  DFM,  ACLV,  standard cell,  OPC,  RET,  

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We focus our attention on the layout dependent Across Chip Linewidth Variability (ACLV) of gate-forming poly-silicon patterns as a measure for manufacturability, which is a major contributor of systematic gate-length variation. First, we study the ACLV of standard cell layouts by lithography simulation. Then, we introduce regularity in gate-forming poly-silicon patterns and how it improves the ACLV and also how it incurs area-overhead. According to the investigation, we propose two design guidelines for standard-cell layout that can reduce ACLV with reasonable area overhead. Those guidelines include on-grid fixed-pitch layout with dummy-poly insertion and stretched gate-poly extension. Design experiments assuming a 65 nm process technology indicate that a D-FF designed with the first guideline reduces ACLV by 35% with 14% area overhead and the second guideline reduces ACLV by 75% with 29% area overhead at the best focus condition. Under defocus conditions, both layouts exhibit stable characteristics whereas the variability of conventional layout grows rapidly as the level of defocus increases. Circuit-level lithography simulation over benchmark circuits also supports that the proposed guidelines considerably reduces the amount of gate length variation.