On-Chip Low-Power High-Voltage Generators for Monolithic Bi-Stable Display Drivers

Wim HENDRIX  Jan DOUTRELOIGNE  Andre VAN CALSTER  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E89-C   No.4   pp.531-539
Publication Date: 2006/04/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e89-c.4.531
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Electronic Circuits
Keyword: 
charge pump,  low-power,  high-voltage,  display driver,  bi-stable display,  

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Summary: 
Bi-stable displays form the foundation of a novel and attractive LCD technology. From now on, images can be maintained on the LCD after driving voltages have been withdrawn from the electrodes. In low frame-rate applications such as e-books, e-labels, smartcards etc., this offers a major improvement in power consumption and battery life. However, bi-stable displays require high driving voltages and complex waveforms. Furthermore, the nature of some applications doesn't allow the use of relatively large passive components. This rules out more traditional approaches for high-voltage generation with external coils or capacitors. This paper describes the design of completely integrated and programmable high-voltage generators capable of generating output voltages up to 50 V out of a 3 V supply voltage. Features like 8-bit output voltage programmability and stabilisation were implemented to make this type of high-voltage generator suitable for bi-stable display drivers. Design aspects and simulation results are discussed, as well as measurements on prototype generators implemented in the 0.7 µm 100 V I2T100 technology from AMI Semiconductor.