Vdd_min) for the write operation even if considering a sufficiently-large random threshold voltage (Vth) variations. The following points have been shown based on an actual 65 nm CMOS device variation data and the implemented layout data that 1) Vdd_min for the write operation can be lowered from Vdd=1.1 V down to 0.8 V when considering a 4-sigma (σ) variation, 2) the write recovery time can be reduced by 92% and 70% that for the conventional schemes [1],[2] at Vdd=0.7 V and 1.0 V, respectively, and 3) WRTM defined by the percentage (%) of the required (BL pull-down level/Vdd) to flip the cell nodes for the write operation can be relaxed by 2.6-fold and 1.4-fold that for the conventional schemes [1],[2] at Vdd=0.75 V and 1.0 V, respectively. As an actual implementation in a 65 nm CMOS, a 32-kbit single-port SRAM macro design and the measured butterfly curves have been demonstrated." />


A Differential Cell Terminal Biasing Scheme Enabling a Stable Write Operation against a Large Random Threshold Voltage (Vth) Variation

Hiroyuki YAMAUCHI  Toshikazu SUZUKI  Yoshinobu YAMAGAMI  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E89-C   No.11   pp.1526-1534
Publication Date: 2006/11/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e89-c.11.1526
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Novel Device Architectures and System Integration Technologies)
Category: 
Keyword: 
SRAM,  cell terminal biasing,  differential cell terminal,  SNM,  write margin,  disturb,  

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Summary: 
Fundamental limitation on assisting a write margin (WRTM) by reducing the cell terminal bias (VDDM) has been made clear for the first time and the new cell terminal biasing scheme featuring a differential VDDM (Diff-VDDM) control has been proposed to address the issues which the conventional schemes proposed so far can not overcome [1]-[5]. Since Diff-VDDM biasing scheme can meet the both of the requirements simultaneously of 1) reducing drivability for the PMOS load transistor on the "Low" written bit-line (BL) side, and 2) increasing drivability for the other side PMOS for a write recovery, it can provide a lower minimum operating voltage (Vdd_min) for the write operation even if considering a sufficiently-large random threshold voltage (Vth) variations. The following points have been shown based on an actual 65 nm CMOS device variation data and the implemented layout data that 1) Vdd_min for the write operation can be lowered from Vdd=1.1 V down to 0.8 V when considering a 4-sigma (σ) variation, 2) the write recovery time can be reduced by 92% and 70% that for the conventional schemes [1],[2] at Vdd=0.7 V and 1.0 V, respectively, and 3) WRTM defined by the percentage (%) of the required (BL pull-down level/Vdd) to flip the cell nodes for the write operation can be relaxed by 2.6-fold and 1.4-fold that for the conventional schemes [1],[2] at Vdd=0.75 V and 1.0 V, respectively. As an actual implementation in a 65 nm CMOS, a 32-kbit single-port SRAM macro design and the measured butterfly curves have been demonstrated.