Summary: A 1-Gb AG-AND flash memory has been fabricated using 0.13-µm CMOS technology, resulting in a cell area of 0.104 µm2 and a chip area of 95.2 mm2. By applying constant-charge-injection programming and source-line-select programming, a fast page programming time of 600 µs is achieved. The four-bank operation attains a fast programming throughput of 10 MB/s in multilevel flash memories. The compact SRAM write buffers reduce the chip area penalty. A rewrite throughput of 8.3 MB/s is achieved by means of the RAM-write operation during the erase mode.