VLSI Design of a Fully-Parallel High-Throughput Decoder for Turbo Gallager Codes

Luca FANUCCI  Pasquale CIAO  Giulio COLAVOLPE  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E89-A   No.7   pp.1976-1986
Publication Date: 2006/07/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1093/ietfec/e89-a.7.1976
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Digital Signal Processing
low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes,  belief propagation,  iterative decoding,  VLSI architectures,  parallel decoder architectures,  

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The most powerful channel coding schemes, namely those based on turbo codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) Gallager codes, have in common the principle of iterative decoding. However, the relative coding structures and decoding algorithms are substantially different. This paper presents a 2048-bit, rate-1/2 soft decision decoder for a new class of codes known as Turbo Gallager Codes. These codes are turbo codes with properly chosen component convolutional codes such that they can be successfully decoded by means of the decoding algorithm used for LDPC codes, i.e., the belief propagation algorithm working on the code Tanner graph. These coding schemes are important in practical terms for two reasons: (i) they can be encoded as classical turbo codes, giving a solution to the encoding problem of LDPC codes; (ii) they can also be decoded in a fully parallel manner, partially overcoming the routing congestion bottleneck of parallel decoder VLSI implementations thanks to the locality of the interconnections. The implemented decoder can support up to 1 Gbit/s data rate and performs up to 48 decoding iterations ensuring both high throughput and good coding gain. In order to evaluate the performance and the gate complexity of the decoder VLSI architecture, it has been synthesized in a 0.18 µm standard-cell CMOS technology.