Analysis of Automation Surprises in Human-Machine Systems with Time Information

Masakazu ADACHI  Toshimitsu USHIO  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E89-A   No.4   pp.1027-1034
Publication Date: 2006/04/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1093/ietfec/e89-a.4.1027
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Selected Papers from the 18th Workshop on Circuits and Systems in Karuizawa)
automation surprises,  human-machine systems,  timed automata,  timed simulation,  composite model,  

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This paper analyzes automation surprises in human-machine systems with time information. Automation surprises are phenomena such that the underlying machine's behavior diverges from user's intention and may lead to critical situations. Thus, designing human-machine systems without automation surprises is one of fundamental issues to achieve reliable user interaction with the machines. In this paper, we focus on timed human-machine interaction and address their formal aspects. The presented framework is essentially an extension of untimed human-machine interaction and will cover the previously proposed methodologies. We employ timed automata as a model of human-machine systems with time information. Modeling the human-machine systems as timed automata enables one to deal with not only discrete behavior but also time constraints. Then, by introducing the concept of timed simulation of the machine model and the user model, conditions which guarantee the nonexistence of automation surprises are derived. Finally, we construct a composite model in which a machine model and a user model evolve concurrently and show that automation surprises can be detected by solving a reachability problem in the composite model.