Noise Metrics in Flip-Flop Designs

Mohammed A. ELGAMEL  Md Ibrahim FAISAL  Magdy A. BAYOUMI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E88-D   No.7   pp.1501-1505
Publication Date: 2005/07/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 10.1093/ietisy/e88-d.7.1501
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Recent Advances in Circuits and Systems--Part 1)
Category: Digital Circuits and Computer Arithmetic
flip-flop,  noise immunity,  low power,  deep aubmicron,  

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About 20-45% of the total power in any VLSI circuit is consumed by the clocking system and 90% of this power consumption is spent by flip-flops. Wider datapaths, deeper pipelines, and increasing number of registers in modern processors have underscored the importance of the flip-flops. As a result, the flip-flops' performance metrics such as, power, delay, and power delay product will become a crucial factor in overall performance of processors. As technology is moving into deep submicron level, noise immunity and noise generated by any component in a digital device is also becoming a vital factor in circuit design. This paper studies various flip-flop designs for their noise immunity and noise generation metrics. It categorizes the flip-flops and reports extensive simulation results for best representative examples including the newly proposed one from the group (a patent is filed for this flip-flop). It compares power, delay, power delay product, number of transistors, number of clocked transistors, noise immunity, and noise generation for flip-flops that are reported as ones with the best performances in the literature.