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Watermarking Combined with CELP Speech Coding for Authentication
Zhe-Ming LU Bin YAN Sheng-He SUN
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2005/02/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: LETTER
Category: Speech and Hearing
watermarking, authentication, CELP, statistical detection,
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This letter presents a speech watermarking scheme that is combined with CELP (Code Excited Linear Prediction) speech coding for speech authentication. The excitation codebook of CELP is partitioned into three parts and labeled '0', '1' and 'any' according to the private key. Watermark embedding process chooses the codebook whose label is the same as the watermark bit and combines it with the codebook labeled 'any' for CELP coding. A statistical method is employed to detect the watermark, and the watermark length for authentication and detection threshold are determined by false alarm probability and missed detection probability. The new codebook partition technique produces less distortion, and the statistical detection method guarantees that the error probability can be controlled under prescribed level.