Beam Control in Unilaterally Coupled Active Antennas with Self-Oscillating Harmonic Mixers

Minoru SANAGI  Joji FUJIWARA  Kazuhiro FUJIMORI  Shigeji NOGI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E88-C    No.7    pp.1375-1381
Publication Date: 2005/07/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e88-c.7.1375
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Recent Technologies of Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Devices Focusing on Miniaturization and Advancement in Performance with Their Applications)
Category: Active Circuits & Antenna
microwave,  active antenna,  self-oscillating harmonic mixer,  beamforming,  injection locking,  

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Beam control using active antenna arrays with self-oscillating harmonic mixers has been investigated. The active antenna is composed of a patch antenna receiving RF signal and a parallel feedback type oscillator which operates as the self-oscillating harmonic mixer, and down-converts the received RF signal into IF signal. The mixer has two ports for local oscillating (LO) signal. One is an output port extracting the LO signal. The other is an input port for an injection signal to synchronize the local oscillation. The mixers can be coupled unilaterally without other nonreciprocal components by connecting the output port to the input port in the next mixer. In the unilaterally coupled array, the phase differences of the LO signals between the adjacent mixers can be varied without phase shifters in injection locking state by changing the local free-running frequencies of the self-oscillating mixers. The receiving pattern can be controlled by combining the IF signals from the individual active antennas, which have phases associated with the LO signals. The IF is difference between the RF and double of the LO frequency so that arbitrary phase differences from 0 to 2π radian can be provided to the output IF signals. The experiments using the two- and three-element arrays demonstrated beam control capability.