An Optimization Process for Hybrid Dual-Stage Raman/EDF Amplifiers When Kerr-Nonlinearity, Double Rayleigh Backscattering Noise and OSNR are Important

Andrew Che-On CHAN  Malin PREMARATNE  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E88-C   No.5   pp.912-919
Publication Date: 2005/05/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e88-c.5.912
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Joint Special Section on Recent Progress in Optoelectronics and Communications)
Category: Optical Fibers, Cables and Fiber Devices
Keyword: 
dual-stage Raman amplifier,  Rayleigh backscattering,  erbium doped fiber amplifier,  ASE,  optimization,  

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Summary: 
In this paper, a detailed model of a hybrid dual-stage Raman/erbium-doped fiber (EDF) amplifier is presented. This model takes into account the impact of double Rayleigh backscattering (DRB) noise, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise and Kerr-nonlinearity induced impairments in the amplification process. Using this model, we present a comprehensive analysis of the operation of hybrid dual-stage Raman/EDF amplifiers under above impairments. We show that under fixed total gain conditions for the amplifier module, high Raman gain causes the introduction of increased DRB noise to the amplified signals whereas low Raman gain causes the introduction of high ASE noise power through EDF amplifier. Therefore a balance between the Raman amplifier gain and EDF amplifier gain is required for optimal operation. These observations are then combined to show an optimization process, which could be applied to improve the design of hybrid dual-stage Raman/EDF amplifiers.