Harmonic-Injected Power Amplifier with 2nd Harmonic Short Circuit for Cellular Phones


IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E88-C    No.4    pp.729-738
Publication Date: 2005/04/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e88-c.4.729
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Microwaves, Millimeter-Waves
power amplifier,  cellular,  distortion compensation,  2nd harmonic injection,  2nd harmonic short circuit,  inflectional power,  low supply voltage operation,  

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For the power amplifier used in CDMA cellular phones, the supply voltage is switched between high and low at a transmission power several decibels higher than 10 dBm using a DC-DC converter to improve operational efficiency. The longer the operation time under low supply voltage, the lower the current consumption of the cellular phone. In order to increase the output power under low supply voltage, we applied the 2nd harmonic-injection technique, which is useful for distortion compensation. With 2nd harmonic-injection, there is an inflectional power point. The distortion increases rapidly when output power goes beyond the inflectional power point. It is important to make this inflectional power point high in order to compensate for distortion in the high output-power region. We report here that the inflectional power point can be increased by connecting a 2nd harmonic short circuit to the drain terminal of the FET to which the 2nd harmonic for distortion compensation is injected. A prototype of the final stage of the power amplifier under a supply voltage of Vdd=1.5 V is presented. We report that applying a CDMA uplink signal, 1.5 dB higher output power and 12% higher drain efficiency is achieved compared when only 2nd harmonic injection is employed.